Kennen wir uns eigentlich? Zur Geschichte der deutsch-katalanischen Kulturbeziehungen. Hispania, , vol. The article analyzes the role that culture played in German-Spanish relations during National-Soc This is a relevant historiographical question for to two main reasons.
The first, that we still lack an overall approach on the cultural relations between the two countries in that period. The second, that when the national-socialists came to power in , culture had already become for a long time an essential part of foreign politics of the most important European powers, and consequently also of Germany. The article explains the motivations for intensifying cultural relations for both countries.
Its ultimate objective is to get a clearer idea about the affinities between Nazi Germany and the Francoist regime. We base the analysis in our own research in archives as well as in the already existing literature on partial aspects of the cultural relations between the two countries. We conclude that the tensions between the different political sectors which looked for hegemony inside the francoist regime were not the decisive factor to explain the variations in the intensity of the cultural relations between the two countries.
The decisive element was the negative evolution of the Second World War for Germany. El factor decisivo fue el desarrollo negativo para Alemania de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. During the year the need for workers in Germany increased. In reaction, the National Sociali In reaction, the National Socialists requested allied and neutral countries to recruit volunteer workers.
The total number of volunteers from these countries employed by the Nazis during the Second World War was similar to that of the total of the civilian workers from occupied Poland. In spite of the better conditions offered to these volunteers and the efforts to indoctrinate them, the National Socialists failed to attract them to their cause.
This article examines the reasons for this failure taking as an example the case of the Spanish volunteers. The research is mainly based on the documents of the Deutsch-Spanische Gesellschaft DSG of Berlin, which was the principal intermediary between the Spanish volunteers, the National Socialist and the Spanish authorities. El miracle de Berna. Aquest simposi es proposa oferir una perspectiva actualitzada dels coneixements sobre la projecci Simposio Internacional: Cultura y ciencia nacionales en el primer franquismo , diciembre Mediterranean cultures and political representations of otherness in the 20th century.
A Treason of the Intellectuals? Les llargues ombres de la dictadura. Debat amb Joachim Gauck, Cicle CCCB: Debat amb Joachim Gauck, director de la Stasi Research Group 'Nexus between science, culture, politics, religion and society'. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.
As we have to be vigilant, we can suppose that somebody has to play the role of the ethicist. In your opinion, which profile of person could play that role? Bartha Maria Knoppers : First of all we have to decide if it is going to be a profession, because they carry a lot of power, like a delegation of responsibilities from ethics committees.
These committees are composed of scientists, legal people and community representatives. I think there are four criteria for a professional. He is a person with expertise, responsibility, independence of judgement and accountability.
I think they will have to start by accrediting the "ethics profession," i. I think probably you would have to do exams, like we do in any other professions, or ongoing education. Ethics professionals could come from sociology, psychology, biology, law, I do not think it matters that much what field you come from. It matters that once you say that this is what you want to be, where do you want to go, what do you want to do, there is some process to make it sure that there is a minimum assurance of quality.
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We have private ethics forms now operating to give private ethics review to private companies. Again we have no idea how these things work. But the companies will say that they have ethics review. I used to teach family law. In the majority of cases we used to say that mediation was needed. Now we have a profession called mediators, who now have ten years of experience. So a minimum polity expertise is assured. Per experimentar, s'han fet servir presos i malalts que estaven en hospitals i manicomis, i fins i tot vells d'asils.
Jaume Bertranpetit : Bon dia a tots.
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Ara us vull presentar el doctor Gert-Jan B. Thank you very much for inviting me to this conference. I hope that I will be able to make myself understood. Unfortunately my Catalan is not good enough to make myself clear so I am pushed to make this talk in English.
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Actually, what I wanted to outline is that a lot of the questions that we have on a daily basis are not new. It is a perennial question of nature and nurture. What is in our genes and what is in the surrounding? The answers to these questions are both equally important. Our genes have been selected to the surroundings for millions of years. The trouble is that the environment is very difficult to control for and so we can only understand the environmental influence better if we understand what the influence of our genes is. To let you know that this is not just a story, we have the example of the top ten drugs of From this group, nine out of ten are drugs that help us and our genes survive the environment.
Only at the tenth position is the first drug that actually defends us from something of the outside. If we then look two years further on, in , not only the prices have doubled, but penicillin is drop from the variances and these are all medications that help us to make it through life. You can study that from a genetic point of view.
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A colleague of mine in the Netherlands decided to study headache, because he thought that headache is something genetic because you can get it from your parents. So for ten years they looked for the gene for migraine and at last they found it. I am not going to explain to you the whole story, but I want you to know that what they learned was that there existed an ion channel that transported calcium across the neurones. The actual interest of this question is that it really has changed the whole field of research in migraine and epilepsy. This is a clear example of where a sudden discovery can lead one.
You also heard me say that this took ten years. At the time that I began working in this field the whole community of genetic scientists in the world only managed to find three diseases in three years, that is one disease per year, so it did not really go very fast.
This was the reason why at some point people thought that the genome project would be a better way to solve it. At a macro level, the first five years of the process they were making maps. During the second period of five years, at a medium level, they were putting genes on the map.
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And in last five years, which are ongoing now at a macro level, they are discovering the human DNA sequence. At this time there was a discussion among the scientists. Those who were classical scientists were very much against doing all this work, because they thought that it was not really science but a "fishing expedition", it was not hypothesis-based and they knew that it would cost a lot of money.